The use of adhesives offers many advantages over binding techniques such as sewing, mechanical fastening, thermal bonding, etc.
Porcelain stoneware can be used instead of natural stone. It is a ceramic material like a tile; however, it is typically 20 mm (0.79 in) thick and often comes in squares of 60 cm (24 in).
Ceramic tile are clay products which are formed into thin tiles and fired. Ceramic tiles are set in beds of mortar or mastic with the joints between tiles grouted. Varieties of ceramic tiles include quarry tile, porcelain, terracotta.
Laminate is a floor covering that appears similar to hardwood but is made with a plywood or medium density fiberboard core with a plastic laminate top layer. Laminate may be more durable than hardwood, but cannot be refinished like hardwood.
Travertine is a variety of limestone that is created when heated aquifer waters rise to the surface and leave layers of mineral granules. Over time, these deposits cool and crystallize into travertine.